Puts cows and spruce trees together for any length of time and this is what you get — trunks pruned of branches and bark rubbed smooth.
In pastures with few trees the damage is even greater for it’s here the cattle gather when sun beats down, when rain and hail pelt them, when snow falls thick and fast.
The earth also suffers as their hooves churn the soil to dust or mud holes or frozen lumps, depending on the season. Little can grow under such a pounding.
All part of the price of hamburger and steaks.